|NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Rates of certain birth
defects appear higher than normal in one of the Ukraine regions most affected
by the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, according to a new
Anya Savenok, 9, who was born physically affected due to high radiation according to doctors, plays in her home in the village of Strakholissya, just outside the 30 km (19 miles) exclusion zone around the closed Chernobyl nuclear power plant April 1, 2006. REUTERS/Damir Sagolj
The findings, reported in the journal Pediatrics,
stand in contrast to a 2005 U.N. report stating that there is no evidence
of an increased risk of birth defects or other reproductive effects in
areas contaminated by radiation from the Chernobyl accident.
What's more, the rate was particularly elevated in the Polissia area -- where 27 of every 10,000 babies were born with a neural tube defect, compared with 18/10,000 in the rest of Rivne.
Rivne also appeared to have elevated rates of conjoined twins -- 0.6%, compared with the roughly 0.2 % average estimated for Europe -- and sacrococcygeal teratomas, which are congenital tumors on the tailbone. The teratoma rate was 0.7 % in Rivne, whereas the published rates of the condition range from 0.25 to 0.5%.
Two other birth defects -- microcephaly, where the head is abnormally small, and microphthalmia, in which the eyes are undersized -- were more common in Polissia than in other regions of Rivne. There were 3.7 cases of microcephaly for every 10,000 children in Polissia, compared with 1.3/10,000 in the rest of Rivne; the rate of microphthalmia was 1.8/10,000, versus 0.4/10,000 in other regions.
The findings are "not definitive," Wertelecki said. A limitation of the study is that it lacked information on pregnant women's actual radiation absorption.
It also lacked data on women's diets. This is important because the birth defects that were elevated in Rivne can also result from fetal alcohol exposure or, in the case of neural tube defects, a deficiency in the B vitamin folate early in pregnancy.
"In the Ukraine, Wertelecki said, alcohol is also a problem. Malnutrition is also a problem."
It is not clear to what extent alcohol, folate deficiency and low-dose radiation exposure may each explain the findings. It's also quite possible, Wertelecki said, that all three factors work in combination to raise the odds of congenital defects.
More studies are needed to look at the relationship between actual radiation absorption and the risk of birth defects, as well as the possible interaction between low-dose radiation, prenatal drinking and nutritional deficiencies, according to Wertelecki.
"Existing local resources and the expressed interest by Rivne authorities to nurture partnerships with national and international teams will facilitate such initiatives," he writes.
SOURCE: Pediatrics, April 2010.