|Stanford Report, August 23, 2010
When researchers found an
unusual linkage between solar flares and the inner life of radioactive
elements on Earth, it touched off a scientific detective investigation
that could end up protecting the lives of space-walking astronauts and
maybe rewriting some of the assumptions of physics.
BY DAN STOBER
It's a mystery that presented itself unexpectedly:
The radioactive decay of some elements sitting quietly in laboratories
on Earth seemed to be influenced by activities inside the sun, 93 million
Is this possible?
Researchers from Stanford and Purdue University
believe it is. But their explanation of how it happens opens the door to
yet another mystery.
There is even an outside chance that this
unexpected effect is brought about by a previously unknown particle emitted
by the sun. "That would be truly remarkable," said Peter Sturrock,
Stanford professor emeritus of applied physics and an expert on the inner
workings of the sun.
The story begins, in a sense, in classrooms
around the world, where students are taught that the rate of decay of a
specific radioactive material is a constant. This concept is relied upon,
for example, when anthropologists use carbon-14 to date ancient artifacts
and when doctors determine the proper dose of radioactivity to treat a
But that assumption was challenged in an unexpected
way by a group of researchers from Purdue University who at the time were
more interested in random numbers than nuclear decay. (Scientists use long
strings of random numbers for a variety of calculations, but they are difficult
to produce, since the process used to produce the numbers has an influence
on the outcome.)
Ephraim Fischbach, a physics professor at
Purdue, was looking into the rate of radioactive decay of several isotopes
as a possible source of random numbers generated without any human input.
(A lump of radioactive cesium-137, for example, may decay at a steady rate
overall, but individual atoms within the lump will decay in an unpredictable,
random pattern. Thus the timing of the random ticks of a Geiger counter
placed near the cesium might be used to generate random numbers.)
As the researchers pored through published
data on specific isotopes, they found disagreement in the measured decay
rates – odd for supposed physical constants.
Checking data collected at Brookhaven National
Laboratory on Long Island and the Federal Physical and Technical Institute
in Germany, they came across something even more surprising: long-term
observation of the decay rate of silicon-32 and radium-226 seemed to show
a small seasonal variation. The decay rate was ever so slightly faster
in winter than in summer.
Was this fluctuation real, or was it merely
a glitch in the equipment used to measure the decay, induced by the change
of seasons, with the accompanying changes in temperature and humidity?
"Everyone thought it must be due to experimental
mistakes, because we're all brought up to believe that decay rates are
constant," Sturrock said.
The sun speaks
On Dec 13, 2006, the sun itself provided a
crucial clue, when a solar flare sent a stream of particles and radiation
toward Earth. Purdue nuclear engineer Jere Jenkins, while measuring the
decay rate of manganese-54, a short-lived isotope used in medical diagnostics,
noticed that the rate dropped slightly during the flare, a decrease that
started about a day and a half before the flare.
If this apparent relationship between flares
and decay rates proves true, it could lead to a method of predicting solar
flares prior to their occurrence, which could help prevent damage to satellites
and electric grids, as well as save the lives of astronauts in space.
The decay-rate aberrations that Jenkins noticed
occurred during the middle of the night in Indiana – meaning that something
produced by the sun had traveled all the way through the Earth to reach
Jenkins' detectors. What could the flare send forth that could have such
Jenkins and Fischbach guessed that the culprits
in this bit of decay-rate mischief were probably solar neutrinos, the almost
weightless particles famous for flying at almost the speed of light through
the physical world – humans, rocks, oceans or planets – with virtually
no interaction with anything.
Then, in a series of papers published in Astroparticle
Physics, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research
and Space Science Reviews, Jenkins, Fischbach and their colleagues
showed that the observed variations in decay rates were highly unlikely
to have come from environmental influences on the detection systems.
Reason for suspicion
Their findings strengthened the argument that
the strange swings in decay rates were caused by neutrinos from the sun.
The swings seemed to be in synch with the Earth's elliptical orbit, with
the decay rates oscillating as the Earth came closer to the sun (where
it would be exposed to more neutrinos) and then moving away.
So there was good reason to suspect the sun,
but could it be proved?
Enter Peter Sturrock, Stanford professor emeritus
of applied physics and an expert on the inner workings of the sun. While
on a visit to the National Solar Observatory in Arizona, Sturrock was handed
copies of the scientific journal articles written by the Purdue researchers.
Sturrock knew from long experience that the intensity of the barrage
of neutrinos the sun continuously sends racing toward Earth varies on a
regular basis as the sun itself revolves and shows a different face, like
a slower version of the revolving light on a police car. His advice to
Purdue: Look for evidence that the changes in radioactive decay on Earth
vary with the rotation of the sun. "That's what I suggested. And that's
what we have done."
Going back to take another look at the decay
data from the Brookhaven lab, the researchers found a recurring pattern
of 33 days. It was a bit of a surprise, given that most solar observations
show a pattern of about 28 days – the rotation rate of the surface of the
The explanation? The core of the sun – where
nuclear reactions produce neutrinos – apparently spins more slowly than
the surface we see. "It may seem counter-intuitive, but it looks as
if the core rotates more slowly than the rest of the sun," Sturrock
All of the evidence points toward a conclusion
that the sun is "communicating" with radioactive isotopes on Earth, said
But there's one rather large question left
unanswered. No one knows how neutrinos could interact with radioactive
materials to change their rate of decay.
"It doesn't make sense according to conventional
ideas," Fischbach said. Jenkins whimsically added, "What we're suggesting
is that something that doesn't really interact with anything is changing
something that can't be changed."
"It's an effect that no one yet understands,"
agreed Sturrock. "Theorists are starting to say, 'What's going on?'
But that's what the evidence points to. It's a challenge for the physicists
and a challenge for the solar people too."
If the mystery particle is not a neutrino,
"It would have to be something we don't know about, an unknown particle
that is also emitted by the sun and has this effect, and that would be
even more remarkable," Sturrock said.
Chantal Jolagh, a science-writing intern at the
Stanford News Service, contributed to this story.